Filsafat Politik Islam Al-Farabi dan khomeini

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wide_pengertian-filsafat-pendidikanPendidikan, Jurnalis Indonesia – Setiap pemaparan tentang filsafat politik Islam tidak bisa tidak harus bermula pada pembagian-pembagian klasik filsafat Islam ke dalam dua bagian. Pertama, filsafat teoritis atau dalam islam (Al-Hikmah al-nazhariyyah), dan kedua adalah filsafat praktis (Al-hikmah al-amaliyyah). Yang pertama terkait dengan hakikat segala sesuatu sebagaimana adanya, sedangkan yang kedua terkait dengan sebagaimana mestinya. Jadi jika filsafat teoritis terkait dengan fisika, metafisika, dan psikologi, maka filsafat praktis terkait dengan etika, ekonomi dan politik. Etika mengatur bagaimana seharusnya individu berprilaku, ekonomi dalam pengertian klasik mengatur pengelolaan rumah tangga, sedangkan politik mengatur pengelolaan suatu kota atau negara. Filsafat praktis mesti di dasarkan atas filsafat teoritis, dengan kata lain dimana filsafat teoritis berakhir di situlah filsafat praktis bermula. Jadi tidaklah heran jika setiap pembahasan tentang ketiga bagian filsafat praktis itu selalu bermula dari pembahasan tentang Tuhan, Alam semesta dan Manusia.

Filsafat politik Al Farabi

Beliau dikenal sebagai “guru kedua” setelah Aristoteles,si “guru pertama”. Dia adalah filosof islam pertama yang berupaya menghadapkan,mempertalikan,dan sejauh mungkin menyelaraskan filsafat politik Yunani Klasik dengan Islam, serta berupaya membuatnya di mengerti di dalam konteks agama-agama wahyu. Di dalam karyanya yang paling terkenal (kota atau negara utama) berkenaan dengan pencapaian kebahagiaan melalui kehidupan politik dan hubungan antara rezim yang paling baik menurut pemahaman plato dan hukum ilahiah. Kalau dalam plato kebahagiaan puncak hanya dapat di peroleh dalam negara yang ideal,dalam Al-Farabi kesempurnaan dan kebahagiaan puncak hanya dapat di peroleh dalam negara ideal yang sempurna pemerintahanya, yang dipimpin oleh raja filosof yang identik dengan pemberi hukum dan imam. Selanjutnya tujuan dari filsafat politik Al-Farabi ini di kembangkan dalam Risalah Persaudaraan Suci (sebuah ensiklopedi yang dihimpun sebelum 394 H oleh parapenulis dan simpatisan anonim Ismai’iliyyah). Mereka memuat paragraf-paragraf yang lebih banyak mengungkapkan gagasan pelik dan rumit mengenai flsafat politik yang di dasarkan atas Al-Faribi. Kemudian di bawah pengaruh teori keimanan Syi’ah dan filsafat politik platonik Aristotelian Al-Faribi, mereka mengembangkan negara utopian “negara spiritual utama” sebagai lawan dari “pemerintahan jahat”. Negara utopian ini terbangun dari manusia-manusia yang bajik , bijaksana , dan tulus hati dalam satu hirarki dengan pemimpin dan agamawan yang mana harus saling membantu dan bekerjasama untuk mencapai kebahagiaan tertinggi di hari nanti. Rakyat dan pemimpin membutuhkan petunjuk hukum illahi, karena manusia adalah gabungan dari empat jiwa, yaitu jiwa tumbuhan, hewan, rasional, dan malaikat yang mencerminkan empat tahap jalan manusia menuju kesempurnaan dan yang menjadikan manusia dapat memilah antara yang baik dan yang buruk.

Menginajak kepada filsafat politik Ibnu Sina, menurutnya manusia tidak dapat menempuh kehidupan yang benar ia terasing sebagai individu sendirian. Ia membutuhkan masyarakat,dan karena struktur hirarkis masyarakat seperti menurut plato, masyarakat dapat dibagi menjadi penguasa,  seniman, dan pelayan yang mana para anggotanya saling bergantung satu sama lain. Manusia harus taat kepada pembuat hukum, Nabi, dengan menunaikan kewajibanya kepada Tuhan dan kepada sesama manusia. Hal ini berbeda dengan Lawsnya Plato, syari’ah islam merupakan satu-satunya jalan hidup di dunia ini hingga di hari nanti. Kehidupan di bumi sekarang ini sebagai prasyarat bagi kehidupan di akhirat nanti menegaskan minat Ibnu Sina dalam politik. Jadi, lebih banyak dari pada yang dapat di temukan dalam pemikiran Al-Farabi, masyarakat sebagai konteks kehidupan manusia merupakan prasyarat bagi kesempurnaan manusia. Oleh karna itu, para warga negara perlu dijadikan baik agar kota dapat terwujud sedangkan menurut Al-Farabi kota itu ada untuk membuat manusia manjadi lebih baik. Sesuai dengan pembagian filsafat praktisnya.

 Filsafat Politik khomeini

“Pemimpin umat adalah sarana untuk melindungi iman dan jaminan bagi persatuan struktur sosial, pengembangan ekonomi, dan penerapan hukum-hukum Tuhan. Keberadaannya menjamin keamanan perbatasan negeri dan penerapan hudud (hukum pidana). Ia menjamin pemberian hak-hak Ilahi, memelihara integritas iman, dan menjaga kehormatan umat Islam. Ia menimbulkan kemarahan dan kesedihan di hati kaum munafik dan merancang penghancuran kaum kafir. Imam umat adalah penggembala rakyat, negarawan dan administrator cakap urusan-urusan mereka, yang kehendak dan ketegunhannya tak pernah memudar dan melemah.” (Imam Ridha)

“Terlalu besar kekuasaan Allah sehingga (tak mungkin) ia meninggalkan dunia dan para penghuninya tanpa seorang pemimpin dan pembimbing yang menegakan keadilan.” (Imam Ja’far Al-Shadiq)

Menurut Imam Khomeini, semua muslim tahu bahwa Islam merupakan agama yang memiliki seperangkat hukum berkenaan dengan masalah-masalah sosial yang harus dilaksanakan oleh kaum Muslim sebagai suatu kesatuan sosial. Untuk menjadikan pelaksanaan hukum-hukum itu efektif, di perlukan kekuasaan eksekutif. Menurutnya di wajibkan kaum Muslim membentuk pemerintahan. Sebab tak ada gunanya suatu peraturan tanpa ada kekuasaan eksekutif yang memaksakan pelaksanaan hukum Islam, khususnya sebagian dari padanya merupakan kewajiban. Tak ada dasar untuk mengesampingkan kewajiban membayar zakat,khumus dan sebagainya. Demikian pula, tak ada dasar untuk mengesampingkan kewajiban pelaksanaan qisas dan hudud.

Kewajiban membentuk negara dan pemerintahan islam juga tampak dari kewajiban menjaga integritas wilayah Islam, nahkan sifat dan hukum Islam itu sendiri yakni fungsinya untuk mengelola urusan ekosop (Ekonomi, sosial, politik) dan kebudayaan. Hukum syariah meliputi segenap aspek yang membentuk kewarganegaraan, kekeluargaan, sampai hubungan internasional. Menurut Imam khomeini, perbandingan kandungan Al-quran mengenai urusan kemasyarakatan dan urusan ibadah adalah sratus banding satu. Demikian pula, dari lima puluh bagian korpus hadis, hanya tiga atau empat bagian yang berhubungan dengan keajiban ibadah yang bersifat individual, disamping sedikit tentang akhlak.

Negara, menurut Imam khomeini adalah instrumen bagi pelaksanaan undang-undang Tuhan di muka bumi. Tidak seperti dalam negara demokrasi (murni), pada dasarnya tak ada hak negara yakni lembaga legislatif sebagai wakil rakyat untuk membuat undang-undang. Otoritas membuat undang-undang dan kedaulatan ada di tangan Allah.

Memberikan kepada rakyat hak untuk membuat undang-undang selain bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam sebagaimana di yakini Imam Khomeini, juga hanya akan memaksa negara untuk menerima perundang-undangan yang boleh jadi buruk tetapi merupakan kemauan rakyat, ataupun menolak perundang-undangan yang baik hanya karena bertentangan dengan kehendak rakyat.

Dalam hal ini perlu di ingat bahwa, menurut pandangan mayoritas Syi’ah justru menganggap bahwa pemenang akhir ada pada kelompok elite ahli (Wali atau Authority), yang paling mengetahui dan, oleh karena itu berhak menafsirkan hukum-hukum Tuhan. Seluruh bagian struktur politik negara mestilah dibawahkan kepada wali ini. Inilah yang di sebut sebagai wilayah al-faqih. Selebihnya jabatan-jabatan dalam struktur negara di serahkan ke[ada para ahlinya, baik dia ulama maupun bukan. Meskipun demikian, kualifikasi berupa fuqahah masih juga perlu di pertimbangkan bagi para pemegang jabatan-jabatan pemerintahan, meskipun nilainya bergantung pada seberapa besar jabatan tersebut berhubungan dengan keperluan penafsiran syariah. Demikian pula kualifikasi adalah hal yang mutlak dimiliki oleh setiap pejabat, meskipun sekali lagi nilainya bergantung pada seberapa penting dan menetukan jabatan itu bagi kemaslahatan rakyat.

Khomeini sendiri, dalam dua tulisannya yang sangat terperinci mengenai teori pemerintah dan politik “Kasyf Al-Asrar” (Penyingkapan Rahasia) dan “Hukumat-i Islami” pada umumnya tidak merujuk ke pendapat-pendapat para filosof itu (seperti Nashir Al-Din Al-Thusi). Sesungguhnya dia juga tidak merujuk ke Fuqahah (alhi-ahli fiqih), tetapi ke hadis-hadis nabi dan para Imam. Akan tetapi, Khomeini merujuk ke Al-Farabi yakni gagasan “kota utama” nya (Al-Madinah Al-Fadhilah), selain mengutip plato yang dikatakannya telah mengantispasi pemerintahan ulama ketika menyerukan adanya pemerintahan oleh orang yang saleh dan arif dalam Republik.

Dalam Kasyf Al-Asrar, Khomeini menulis : “ Satu-satunya pemerintahan yang di terima nalar sebagai absah, serta di sambut hangat dengan sukarela dan senang hati oleh nalar adalah pemerintahan Tuhan. Setiap tindakan Tuhan adalah adil, dan Tuhan berhak memerintah seluruh dunia beserta seluruh partikel eksistensi.Sifat semua pemerintahan yang ada sekarang ini akan menjadi jelas ketika dikontrasikan deengan pemerintahan Tuhan, juga legitimasi tunggal pemerintahan Isalam. Dengan demikian, akan jelas bahwa hukum Islam merupakan hukum yang paling maju di dunia dan bahwa penerapan hukum Islam akan membawa ke arah berdirinya kota utama.”

Republik Islam Iran: Sebuah model Teodemokrasi

Pertama sekali, penting untuk di ingat bahwa para Bapak Revolusi Islam di Iran dengan penuh kesadaran memilih bentuk Republik. Di satu segi, hal ini jelas merupakan bukti bahwa mereka tidak tertutup dari gagasan politik baru, dan sekaligus membantah tuduhan bahwa para tokoh Revolusi Iran bermaksud menarik Iran mundur kembali ke abad pertengahan. Republik di pilih tentu karena bentuk pemerintahan ini di anggap bisa menjadi wadah bagi pemahaman mereka tentang tata cara pengaturan negara modern yang sejalan dengan konsep Islam mengenai masalah ini.

Konsep rupblik, sebagaimana diterapkan dalam RII telah dimodifikasi dengan konsep kepemimpinan wliayah al-faqih, atau pemerintahan para ulama. Modifikasi ini menyentuk ketiga sendi sistem republik, meliputi institusi-institusi yang biasa di sebut Trias Politika. Hal ini dirasa perlu, mengingat pada sistem ini konsep kepemimpinan Islam apakah itu namanya wilayah atau imama tidak cukup terwakili di dalamnya. Ada batas-batas, sebagaimana di atur menurut konsep Trias Politika, yang di dalamnya kekuasaan eksekutif sepenuhnya di tundukan terhadap kekuasaan legislatif. Demikian pula, kekuasaan yudikatif mempunyai batas-batasnya sendiri yang membuat mereka tidak leluasa untuk menerapkan hukum Islam.

Mengenai wilayah al-faqih, Pasal 5 Konstitusi Iran menyatakan bahwa selama gaibnya Imam Mahdi, wilayah dan kepemimpinan umat beralih ke faqih yang adil dan saleh, yang memahami benar keadaan zamannya: yang berani, cerdas dan mampu memerintah, serta di akui dan di terima sebagai pemimpin oleh mayoritas rakya. Yang dirujuk oleh Pasal Konstitusi ini adalah kasus Ayatullah Khomeini yang secara otomatis mengemban jabatan wali faqih tanpa melalui proses seleksi, bukan eleksi (pemilu).

Di luar kasus tersebut, seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Pasal 107, ahli-ahli yang di pilih rakyat akan menunjuk salah seorang faqih yang memenuhi syarat untuk menjadi pemimpin guna mengemban jabwatan wali faqih. Jika tidak ada seseorang yang memenuhi persyaratan, Dewan Ahli yang sama akan menunjuk tiga atau lima marja yang memiliki persyaratan yang di perlukan untuk membentuk Dewan Faqih. Dewan Ahli yang di sebut-sebut dalam pasal ini beranggotakan sekitar 72 ahli hukum Islam yang di pilih oleh rakyat melalui pemilihan umum yang khusus dipersiapkan untuk tujuan ini.

Jika kita melihat kepada metode pengangkatan Imam versi Al-Farabi, tampak bahwa dalam sistem wilayah al-faqih seleksi wali faqih oleh umat dengan kata lain lewat pemilu langsung amat kurang dikehedaki di bandingkan di angkatnya wali faqih melalui pengangkatan khusus. Wali faqih sendiri di beri kekuasaan untuk mengangkat otoritas yudisial tertinggi dan panglima angkatan bersenjata, kekuasaan untuk menyatakan perang dan damai, kekuasaan untuk memobilisasi angkatan bersenjata, dan kekuasaan untuk memecat presiden.

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